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Text2SQL: An Overview of Past, Present and Future

In today's data-driven world, smoothly navigating databases is a must-have for businesses and organizations in every sector. Historically, knowledge of SQL (Structured Query Language) was needed to extract knowledge from databases. However, with recent advances in natural language processing (NLP) and large language models (LLMs), it is actually possible to accurately translate natural-language queries into SQL code. Because natural language is universal, theoretically, anyone should be able to query data with natural language. In this blog post, we're diving deep into the potential that text-to-SQL technology offers, checking out how it's used, what advantages it brings, and what it could mean for the future of working with data.

What is Text2SQL (text-to-SQL)?

Text-to-SQL is a technology that enables users to query databases using natural language input instead of traditional SQL syntax. Leveraging the power of natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning algorithms, text-to-SQL systems translate human-readable text queries into SQL queries, facilitating seamless interaction with databases for users of all skill levels.

How did we get here?

The history of using natural language to interact with data dates back to the early days of computing, with researchers and pioneers envisioning a future where humans could communicate with machines in a manner akin to conversing with fellow humans. In the 1960s and 1970s, early attempts at natural language interfaces emerged, albeit with limited success, due to the complexity of language comprehension and the nascent state of computational capabilities. 

The 1980s witnessed renewed interest in this domain, spurred by advancements in artificial intelligence and natural language processing (NLP). Throughout subsequent decades, researchers made incremental progress, developing prototype systems and exploring various approaches to bridging the gap between human language and data manipulation. 

The advent of Large Language Models (LLMs) in the 2010s marked a significant milestone, propelling the field forward and reigniting enthusiasm for the prospect of natural language interaction with data. Today, with the advent of sophisticated NLP techniques and powerful computing infrastructure, the vision of conversational data interfaces is closer than ever to realization, promising to democratize access to data insights and revolutionize the way we interact with information.

Applications of text-to-SQL:

Enhanced Accessibility: 

By eliminating the need for expertise in SQL syntax, text-to-SQL makes database querying accessible to a broader audience within organizations, including non-technical stakeholders such as business analysts and managers.

Streamlined Data Exploration: 

text-to-SQL accelerates the process of exploring and analyzing data by allowing users to express their queries in natural language, thus reducing the time and effort required to formulate SQL queries manually.

Efficient Report Generation: 

With text-to-SQL, generating custom reports from databases becomes more efficient and intuitive, as users can simply describe the information they need in plain language, without having to navigate complex SQL syntax.

Improved Decision-Making: 

By democratizing access to database querying, text-to-SQL empowers decision-makers at all levels of an organization to derive insights from data autonomously, leading to more informed and data-driven decision-making processes.

Benefits of text-to-SQL:

User-Friendly Interface: 

Text-to-SQL systems offer a user-friendly interface that simplifies the process of interacting with databases, even for users with limited technical expertise.

Time and Cost Savings: 

By reducing the learning curve associated with SQL and streamlining the querying process, text-to-SQL technology enables organizations to save time and resources.

Increased Productivity: 

With text-to-SQL, users can quickly retrieve the information they need from databases, allowing them to focus their time and energy on higher-value tasks.

Greater Data Accessibility: 

Text-to-SQL promotes greater data accessibility within organizations by empowering a wider range of users to harness the insights locked within their databases, driving innovation and collaboration.

Not all text-to-SQL models are created equal

Although there is much promise when it comes to text-to-SQL, what we’ve shared can’t be achieved with just any run-of-the-mill text-to-SQL tech. In fact, one would argue that there’s more that goes on behind the scenes when it comes to organizations leveraging text-to-SQL. We’ve found that some of the best forms of text-to-SQL take the shape of what are known as “copilots”.

What makes a good copilot?

A good copilot for text-to-SQL models possesses a blend of technical proficiency, adaptability, and contextual understanding. They should be adept at navigating the intricacies of natural language and SQL queries, bridging the gap between user intent and database interaction seamlessly. Moreover, a good copilot anticipates user needs, providing intuitive guidance and clarification where necessary, enhancing the overall user experience. 

However, despite the promise of text-to-SQL models, many open-source offerings fall short of meeting the rigorous and custom demands of organizational use. These models often lack the robustness and scalability required for real-world applications, leading to subpar performance and unreliable results. 

Consequently, while open-source models may suffice for basic experimentation or academic purposes, organizations seeking efficient and reliable text-to-SQL solutions may find them inadequate for their operational needs.

Seek AI is one example worth considering that offers an innovative natural language interface for structured data–which not only brings the power of text2SQL to life, but goes the extra mile to allow users to ask their data questions in plain language, and Seek will automatically query it and generate answers. 

Future Implications:

As text-to-SQL technology continues to evolve, we can anticipate its integration into a variety of data-related tools and platforms, further enhancing the accessibility and usability of data for businesses and individuals alike. Additionally, advancements in natural language processing and machine learning are poised to improve the accuracy and efficiency of text-to-SQL systems, unlocking even greater potential for innovation in data interaction.


Text-to-SQL revolutionizes how we interact with databases, making data querying accessible to all and enabling more efficient data-driven decision-making. By connecting natural language with SQL, this technology empowers users to extract insights from data effortlessly, fostering a more knowledgeable and empowered workforce.

Curious to learn how Seek enables your team to seek out the answers to their data questions quickly? Book a demo today:

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